The aim of our tire technology is to Design Specialized Tires Which Will Satisfy Our Customers in Every Aspect of Tire's Performance.
Our engineering department, consisting of engineers from different fields collaborate to improve tire’s performances constantly. We use the designing tools such as QFD and FMEA, which are both stands out for the customer needs and concerns.
We interperate the feedbacks from our technical services from all around the world and apply improvements very fast. As Starmaxx we produce our own know-how, which fit our customers’ performance needs.
What Is A Tire?
Tire is Most Important Single Piece of a Vehicle That is in Close Contact With The Ground, Which is Composed of Rubber, Cord Fabric, Steel Belts And Various Chemicals.
Basic Tire & Rim Terms
1/ Outer Diameter
The diameter of the inflated tire on recommended rim and without load.
2/ Section Width
The widest distance between sidewalls of inflated tire.
3/ Section Height
The vertical distance between the middle points of the tread to the bead seat of the inflated tire.
4/ Static Loaded Radius
The height between axle center and road surface of the tire under load.
5/ Rim Width
The distance between flanges of the rim.
6/ Rim Diameter
The vertical distance between the bead seat areas of the rim.
7/ Dynamic Rolling Circumference
The distance of the tire at one revolution.
The tire is generally defined with such parameters as the maximum cross-section width corresponding to the standard inflation pressure in the measurement rim, nominal diameter of the rim to be attached, speed index, load capacity index and the cross-section ratio.
There are certain markings on the sidewall of tires. You shall find these remarkable notices and properties below;
European Commission of Economics Confirmation
It is the legitimate proof that tires comply with all ECE directives and is represented by a common confirmation number.
Max. Load and Pressure Markings
It is a necessary marking on sidewalls of tires which complies with DOT directives It consists of necessary information about max. load and pressure of tires.
“European Commission of Economics” Tire Verification Symbol
This symbol proves that the tire complies with all necessary standards disclaimed by European Commission of Economics
It represents the ply ratings and type of material used in sidewall and base in accordance with DOT regulation.
Wear Life Indicator
A tire when tested under standard conditions, wear life as 100 according to the test tire life indicates proportionate. Tire life usage patterns, climate and road conditions may change significantly depending on the service properties. More than 100 very good, 100 ‘is good, 100’ below the weak reputation.
Traction Class Indicator
Under controlled conditions demonstrated the ability to stand on the rubber surface is wet. C= current class, B= middle class, such as A= Best class
Heat Resistance Indicator
Tire's resistance to heat and shows the ability to throw heat. C= current class, B= middle class, A= good class, such as AA= Best class
Speed Class and Load Index
European ETRTO standards maximum load and maximum load the tire can be based on the maximum rate based on the mark is indicating.
Pcr Sidewall Marking
Tread Name and Code
Load & Speed Index
Max. Load and Pressure Info
Treadwear, Grip And Heat Info
Ece Approval Numbers
Agricultural Sidewall Marking
A) Radial Tractor
B) Bias Tractor
In a general view, tire consists of seven parts:
Tread is the rubber composition part of a tire which contacts the surface of the road. It is made up of blocks and grooves, which is so called pattern that enables traction, channels water away, and cools down the tire.
Sidewall is the part of a tire that connects the tread and bead along the circumference. By that means, sidewall does not contact the surface of the road. Sidewall's main functions are; protecting the tire against contacts from the rear, and providing flexibility. All markings and size information are featured at the sidewall.
Shoulder is part of a tire that is made of thick rubber, and makes the transition between the tread and sidewall. It has a window like construction that carries out heat from tread. Major function of the shoulder is protecting the casing.
Bead is the part of a tire that contacts the rim. Major components of the bead are steel wire, seat, and filler. Through its connection to the rim on the wheel, bead conveys revolving, rotation, and braking acts to the tire.
Besides the above mentioned major parts, tire is made up of:
Casing is the fundamental part of a tire. It holds the air pressure, carries the load, and encounters impacts. Casing is composed of steel, nylon, rayon, etc. cords which begin below the belt, surround the bead bundle, and finish at the sidewall.
Belt is the part of a tire that is made of steel, nylon, rayon, etc. cord layers, and strengthen the tire via surrounding the layer between tread and casing. It is frequently used at radial tires.
Reinforcement layer at cross-ply tires; surrounds the casing, and strengthens construction, and by that means prevents separation of tread from the casing. Reinforcement layer at radial tires; surrounds the belt, and protects from impacts.
Radial tire construction
Nylon Impact Layer
First Carcass layer
Second Carcass Layer
Bead Reinforcement Fabric
Typical performance characteristics are;
Carrying the vehicle and the entire load, as well as resisting the big load transfer which emerges at the moment of departure and braking.
Transferring the necessary force needed by the engine at the time of braking and taking a curve.
No matter how the road situation or climate conditions are, directing the vehicle with great safety.
Decreasing The Impact Of Unevenness
Providing comfort for the driver and passengers, as well as decreasing the impact of unevenness on the road so that the vehicle becomes long-lived.
Being long-lived in order to keep the tire performance on the maximum level throughout millions of tire cycles.
Classification Of Tires
Tires are classified in three ways:
A) According To Their Structures
Bias Tires (Conventional Tires)
B) According To Their Sizes and Areas Of Use
Light Truck Tires
Van and Pickup Tires
Bus & Truck Tires
Heavy Duty Vehicle Tires
Bicycle and motorcycle Tires
C) According To Their Air Inflation Types
Tires As For Their Structures
I. Conventional Tires:
They are the first type of tires in the history. The cords in the layers which constitute the carcass, take place with certain degrees diagonal to the one to another. They are also known as “Diagonal” or “Bias” Tires.
II. Radial Tires:
They have been produced as a result of requirements of modern and powerful vehicles, in the light of developments in the tire manufacturing technology. The cords (steel or nylon) which constitute the carcass of those tires, take place with 90 degrees perpendicular to the central point of the beads, and there are steel belts which are mounted with certain degrees of angle to nylon layers (The carcass of textile radial tires is made of nylon when the carcass of complete steel radial tires is made of steel cords).
Radial And Bias Tractor Tires
The Advantages of A Radial Tire
Better grip and traction with wide tread, reduced slip
Lower rolling resistance
Minimized soil compaction
Maximized life span
Improved driving comfort with stronger and more flexible sidewall
Lower fuel consumption
Higher load capacity
The plies wrap the tire with an angle lower than 900 from bead to bead. Each ply or carcass cord take place in a bias position.
The plies wrap the tire with an angle of 900 from bead to bead. In addition to parallel body plies, there are also bias impact plies.
Mounting And Dismounting Instructions
Any mistake in replacement process may cause fatal results, and it must be done at authorized service points with appropriate machinery and by trained staff.
The rim must be clean and undamaged. Never mount a tire to a cracked, smashed, deformed or repaired/welded rim. Any material which may harm the tire such as oil, rust or dirt must be cleaned. The rim size must be within the tolerance range, recommended by manufacturer of the vehicle.
The tire must be dry and free of foreign material. In the mounting process, lubricant may be applied on the bead section of the tire. Chemical substances such as petroleum based oils, silicon or detergents must not be used as lubricant. Those products may cause tire to lose its special chemical properties.
The tire inflation air must be moisture free. After mounting the tire, centering of the tire to the rim must be verified.
The valves must be brand new and capped. In case the new tire is tube type, a flap must be placed between the tire and the tube. The flap must be powdered before the process.
New tires must not be matched with old ones.
In case rotation direction or outer side were stated on the sidewall, this information must be taken into consideration.
How To Inflate a Tire?
Keep your distance for your safety.
Use an inflation cage, mounted to the wall or ground, if there is.
Do not exceed recommended inflation pressure.
Use a moisture/dirt filter at the pressurized air line to prevent any moisture/dirt inside the tire.
Do not exceed the recommended inflation pressure during the seating of the bead. In case they do not fit, abort the process.
Incorrect inflation pressure causes following results:
Decreases the performance of the tire and provides an unsafe and uncomfortable drive. Correct and stable inflation pressure increases the performance and life span of the tire. Inflation pressure must be checked periodically.
Low inflation pressure decreases the grip, reduces the life span of the tire by overheating, irregular wearing and even separations/cracking at the shoulders and sidewalls. Over inflation pressure causes when the recommended inflation pressure was exceeded, the situation causes the rim to be damaged and vehicle to bounce; the durability against impacts decreases and jeopardises the human life by bursting.
The fuel consumption increases.
Causes irregular corrosion on tread.
Tires must be stored on special shelves and vertically. In case they are stored vertically one above the other, maximum 8 tires must be put, the tires must be switched each month, in case they remain in this status.
In the tire storage area, there must not be any material which may create ozone effect such as oil, gasoline, solvent, car battery acid, acid installation system, sodium hydroxide, electrical engine or fluorescent light, even though the tires are already installed on the vehicle.
The tire storage must be moisture free and must be ventilated regularly, not to cause moisture. There must not be any water in the area.
In case there is no facility to store the tire on special shelves, their contact with the ground must be prevented and they must be stored one above the other, if they are mounted on rim or vertically, if not mounted on rim.
Semi Drop Center Rim
Nominal Rim Code
Rim Diameter D(mm)
A) 400E - 7 JA
B) 9 - 16.00
Nominal Rim Code
Rim Diameter D(mm)
* For only 9.00
W, Dw And Tw Rims
Nominal Rim Code
Rim Diameter D(mm)
It is mentioned as DW-A, now DW-B in current standards.
Valve Type, Reference Standard
Valve Height (L)
43 GS 11.5
43 GS 11.5
43 GS 16
Valve Diameter (0)
Valve Height (L)
V5.01.1 ve V4.02.1
Matching Of Some Valve Parts
Use Of Liquid Ballast In Tractor Tires
The traction of a tire is in direct proportion to its weight. The heavier the tire is, the more traction it has.
In order to increase the traction power and to prevent wear which may occur as a result of slipping, iron cast ballasts must be installed on the front or rear side of the tractor or liquid ballast must be applied. Starmaxx and vehicle manufacturers recommend use of iron cast ballasts. In cases which iron cast ballast application is not possible, tire may be liquid filled.
Liquid ballasting must be done with a mixture of water/calcium chloride in a way to fill not more than 75% of the tire.
In case where there is no freezing hazard, only water can be used. However this decreases the effect of ballasting by %20. When antifreeze is needed, water /calcium chloride mixture can be used.
The tire must not be filled with water completely, by any means.
Liquid Filling Process:
Deflate the tire.
Rotate the tire in a way to position the valve at the top.
Remove the valve core.
Start filling the water according to the instructions in the manual of the pump.
During the filling process, remove the pump regularly and let the air get out of the tire.
Stop the filling process when liquid starts to flow from the valve. Mount the valve core.
Inflate the tire to its normal pressure.
Important Remark: In tubeless tires, it is recommended to use an inner tube to prevent rim to rust.