Tire Guide

The aim of our tire technology is to Design Specialized Tires Which Will Satisfy Our Customers in Every Aspect of Tire's Performance.

Our engineering department, consisting of engineers from different fields collaborate to improve tire’s performances constantly. We use the designing tools such as QFD and FMEA, which are both stands out for the customer needs and concerns.

We interperate the feedbacks from our technical services from all around the world and apply improvements very fast. As Starmaxx we produce our own know-how, which fit our customers’ performance needs.

Tire Guide

Tire Information

What Is A Tire?

Tire is Most Important Single Piece of a Vehicle That is in Close Contact With The Ground, Which is Composed of Rubber, Cord Fabric, Steel Belts And Various Chemicals.

Basic Tire & Rim Terms

  • 1/ Outer Diameter

    The diameter of the inflated tire on recommended rim and without load.

  • 2/ Section Width

    The widest distance between sidewalls of inflated tire.

  • 3/ Section Height

    The vertical distance between the middle points of the tread to the bead seat of the inflated tire.

  • 4/ Static Loaded Radius

    The height between axle center and road surface of the tire under load.

  • 5/ Rim Width

    The distance between flanges of the rim.

  • 6/ Rim Diameter

    The vertical distance between the bead seat areas of the rim.

  • 7/ Dynamic Rolling Circumference

    The distance of the tire at one revolution.

The tire is generally defined with such parameters as the maximum cross-section width corresponding to the standard inflation pressure in the measurement rim, nominal diameter of the rim to be attached, speed index, load capacity index and the cross-section ratio.

About Sidewall Marking

There are certain markings on the sidewall of tires. You shall find these remarkable notices and properties below;

European Commission of Economics Confirmation

It is the legitimate proof that tires comply with all ECE directives and is represented by a common confirmation number.

Max. Load and Pressure Markings

It is a necessary marking on sidewalls of tires which complies with DOT directives It consists of necessary information about max. load and pressure of tires.

“European Commission of Economics” Tire Verification Symbol

This symbol proves that the tire complies with all necessary standards disclaimed by European Commission of Economics

Construction Info

It represents the ply ratings and type of material used in sidewall and base in accordance with DOT regulation.


Wear Life Indicator

A tire when tested under standard conditions, wear life as 100 according to the test tire life indicates proportionate. Tire life usage patterns, climate and road conditions may change significantly depending on the service properties. More than 100 very good, 100 ‘is good, 100’ below the weak reputation.

Traction Class Indicator

Under controlled conditions demonstrated the ability to stand on the rubber surface is wet. C= current class, B= middle class, such as A= Best class

Heat Resistance Indicator

Tire's resistance to heat and shows the ability to throw heat. C= current class, B= middle class, A= good class, such as AA= Best class

Speed Class and Load Index

European ETRTO standards maximum load and maximum load the tire can be based on the maximum rate based on the mark is indicating.

Pcr Sidewall Marking

PCR Sidewall Marking
  1. Brand
  2. Tread Name and Code
  3. Size
  4. Load & Speed Index
  5. Tubeless
  6. Outside Marking
  7. Safety Instructions
  8. Max. Load and Pressure Info
  9. Construction Information
  10. Treadwear, Grip And Heat Info
  11. Ece Approval Numbers
  12. Dot Code
  13. Product Origin

Agricultural Sidewall Marking

  • A) Radial Tractor

    Radial Tractor
  • B) Bias Tractor

    Bias Tractor

Tire Assembly

In a general view, tire consists of seven parts:


Tread is the rubber composition part of a tire which contacts the surface of the road. It is made up of blocks and grooves, which is so called pattern that enables traction, channels water away, and cools down the tire.


Sidewall is the part of a tire that connects the tread and bead along the circumference. By that means, sidewall does not contact the surface of the road. Sidewall's main functions are; protecting the tire against contacts from the rear, and providing flexibility. All markings and size information are featured at the sidewall.


Shoulder is part of a tire that is made of thick rubber, and makes the transition between the tread and sidewall. It has a window like construction that carries out heat from tread. Major function of the shoulder is protecting the casing.


Bead is the part of a tire that contacts the rim. Major components of the bead are steel wire, seat, and filler. Through its connection to the rim on the wheel, bead conveys revolving, rotation, and braking acts to the tire. Besides the above mentioned major parts, tire is made up of:


Casing is the fundamental part of a tire. It holds the air pressure, carries the load, and encounters impacts. Casing is composed of steel, nylon, rayon, etc. cords which begin below the belt, surround the bead bundle, and finish at the sidewall.


Belt is the part of a tire that is made of steel, nylon, rayon, etc. cord layers, and strengthen the tire via surrounding the layer between tread and casing. It is frequently used at radial tires.

Reinforcement layer

Reinforcement layer at cross-ply tires; surrounds the casing, and strengthens construction, and by that means prevents separation of tread from the casing. Reinforcement layer at radial tires; surrounds the belt, and protects from impacts.

Radial tire construction

  1. Tread
  2. Water Channeling
  3. Blocks
  4. Nylon Impact Layer
  5. Reinforcement Layer
  6. Steel Cords
  7. First Carcass layer
  8. Second Carcass Layer
  9. Coating
  10. Bead Filling
  11. Bead Reinforcement Fabric
  12. Wheel
  13. Bead Wire
  14. Flap
  15. Bead
  16. Sidewall
  17. Shoulder

Performance Characteristics

Typical performance characteristics are;


Carrying the vehicle and the entire load, as well as resisting the big load transfer which emerges at the moment of departure and braking.


Transferring the necessary force needed by the engine at the time of braking and taking a curve.


No matter how the road situation or climate conditions are, directing the vehicle with great safety.

Decreasing The Impact Of Unevenness

Providing comfort for the driver and passengers, as well as decreasing the impact of unevenness on the road so that the vehicle becomes long-lived.

Being Long-Lived

Being long-lived in order to keep the tire performance on the maximum level throughout millions of tire cycles.

Classification Of Tires

Tires are classified in three ways:

A) According To Their Structures

  1. Bias Tires (Conventional Tires)
  2. Radial Tires

B) According To Their Sizes and Areas Of Use

  1. Passenger Tires
  2. Light Truck Tires
  3. Van and Pickup Tires
  4. Bus & Truck Tires
  5. Agricultural Tires
  6. Heavy Duty Vehicle Tires
  7. MPT Tires
  8. Aircraft Tires
  9. Bicycle and motorcycle Tires

C) According To Their Air Inflation Types

  1. Tubeless
  2. Tube Type

Tires As For Their Structures

I. Conventional Tires:

They are the first type of tires in the history. The cords in the layers which constitute the carcass, take place with certain degrees diagonal to the one to another. They are also known as “Diagonal” or “Bias” Tires.

II. Radial Tires:

They have been produced as a result of requirements of modern and powerful vehicles, in the light of developments in the tire manufacturing technology. The cords (steel or nylon) which constitute the carcass of those tires, take place with 90 degrees perpendicular to the central point of the beads, and there are steel belts which are mounted with certain degrees of angle to nylon layers (The carcass of textile radial tires is made of nylon when the carcass of complete steel radial tires is made of steel cords).

Radial And Bias Tractor Tires

The Advantages of A Radial Tire

  • Better grip and traction with wide tread, reduced slip
  • Lower rolling resistance
  • Minimized soil compaction
  • Maximized life span
  • Improved driving comfort with stronger and more flexible sidewall
  • Lower fuel consumption
  • Higher load capacity

The plies wrap the tire with an angle lower than 900 from bead to bead.
Each ply or carcass cord take place in a bias position.

The plies wrap the tire with an angle of 900 from bead to bead.
In addition to parallel body plies, there are also bias impact plies.

Bias Tire Constructions

Bias Tire Constructions

The cords are placed diagonally with certain degrees to the rotation direction to the tire

Radial Tire Constructions

Radial Tire Constructions

The cords are replaced towards the tire center with 90 degrees

Mounting And Dismounting Instructions

Mounting and Dismounting Instructions
  • Any mistake in replacement process may cause fatal results, and it must be done at authorized service points with appropriate machinery and by trained staff.
  • The rim must be clean and undamaged. Never mount a tire to a cracked, smashed, deformed or repaired/welded rim. Any material which may harm the tire such as oil, rust or dirt must be cleaned. The rim size must be within the tolerance range, recommended by manufacturer of the vehicle.
  • The tire must be dry and free of foreign material. In the mounting process, lubricant may be applied on the bead section of the tire. Chemical substances such as petroleum based oils, silicon or detergents must not be used as lubricant. Those products may cause tire to lose its special chemical properties.
  • The tire inflation air must be moisture free. After mounting the tire, centering of the tire to the rim must be verified.
  • The valves must be brand new and capped. In case the new tire is tube type, a flap must be placed between the tire and the tube. The flap must be powdered before the process.
  • New tires must not be matched with old ones.
  • In case rotation direction or outer side were stated on the sidewall, this information must be taken into consideration.

How To Inflate a Tire?

How to Inflate a Tire?
  • Keep your distance for your safety.
  • Use an inflation cage, mounted to the wall or ground, if there is.
  • Do not exceed recommended inflation pressure.
  • Use a moisture/dirt filter at the pressurized air line to prevent any moisture/dirt inside the tire.
  • Do not exceed the recommended inflation pressure during the seating of the bead. In case they do not fit, abort the process.

Incorrect inflation pressure causes following results:

  • Decreases the performance of the tire and provides an unsafe and uncomfortable drive. Correct and stable inflation pressure increases the performance and life span of the tire. Inflation pressure must be checked periodically.
  • Low inflation pressure decreases the grip, reduces the life span of the tire by overheating, irregular wearing and even separations/cracking at the shoulders and sidewalls. Over inflation pressure causes when the recommended inflation pressure was exceeded, the situation causes the rim to be damaged and vehicle to bounce; the durability against impacts decreases and jeopardises the human life by bursting.
  • The fuel consumption increases.
  • Causes irregular corrosion on tread.


  • Tires must be stored on special shelves and vertically. In case they are stored vertically one above the other, maximum 8 tires must be put, the tires must be switched each month, in case they remain in this status.
  • In the tire storage area, there must not be any material which may create ozone effect such as oil, gasoline, solvent, car battery acid, acid installation system, sodium hydroxide, electrical engine or fluorescent light, even though the tires are already installed on the vehicle.
  • The tire storage must be moisture free and must be ventilated regularly, not to cause moisture. There must not be any water in the area.
  • In case there is no facility to store the tire on special shelves, their contact with the ground must be prevented and they must be stored one above the other, if they are mounted on rim or vertically, if not mounted on rim.
  • Semi Drop Center Rim

    Semi Drop Center Rim
    Rim Dimensions
    A±2 G±1 P Min.
    4.00E 101,5 20 25
    5.00F 127 22,5 23,5
    5.50F 139,5
    Rim Diameters
    Nominal Rim Code Rim Diameter D(mm)
    9 227,8
    10 253,2
  • Divided Rims

    A) 400E - 7 JA

    400E - 7 JA

    B) 9 - 16.00

    9 - 16.00
    Rim Dimensions
    A G±1 P Min.
    4.00E 101.5 ±2 20 18
    4.50E 114.5
    5.00F 127 23 22,5
    5JA 127 16 17,5
    5.50F 139.5 22,5 23,5
    6.00F 152.5 ±2
    6LB 152.5 22 25
    7.00I 178 16 23
    7JA 178 17,5
    9 228.5 25,5 27
    9.00 228.5 19 25
    11 279.5 25,5 31,5
    12 305
    13 330
    13.0 330 47
    13.00 330 19 30
    14 355.5 ±2 25,5 31,5
    16.00 406.5 19 30
    Rim Diameters
    Nominal Rim Code Rim Diameter D(mm)
    * For only 9.00
    8 202.4
    10 253.2
    12 304.0
    13 329.4
    14 354.8
    15 380.2
    15.3* 388.3
    16 405.6
    17 436.6
    18 462
    19 487.4
    20 512.8
    24 614.4
  • W, Dw And Tw Rims

    W Rims

    W RIMS

    DW Rims


    TW Rims

    Rim Diameters
    Nominal Rim Code Rim Diameter D(mm)
    16 405.6
    18 462.0
    20 512.8
    24 614.4
    26 665.2
    28 716.0
    30 766.8
    32 817.6
    34 868.4
    36 919.2
    38 970.0
    40 1020.8
    42 1071.6
    44 1122.4
    46 1173.2
    48 1224.0
    50 1274.8
    52 1325.6
    54 1376.4
    Rim Dimensions
    A G±1 P Min.
    It is mentioned as DW-A, now DW-B in current standards.
    W6 152.5 ±2.5 22.5 23.5
    W7 178
    W8 203 25.5 27
    W9 228.5
    W10 254
    W11 279.5
    W12 305
    W13 330
    W8L 203 22.5
    W10L 254
    W14L 355.5 ±5 25.5
    W15L 381 33
    W16L 406.5
    W18L 457
    DW10 254 ±2.5 27
    DW11 279.5
    DW12 305
    DW13 330
    DW13L 330 ±5 36.5
    DW14L 355.5
    DW15L 381
    DW16L 406.5 50.5
    DW18L 457
    DW20B* 508 ±6.5 29
    DW21B* 533.5
    DW23B* 584
    DW24B* 609.5
    DW25B* 635
    DW27B* 686
    DW28B* 711
    DW30B* 762
    TW13 330 ±2.5 25.5 27
    TW14L 355.5 ±5 36.5
    TW15L 381
    TW16L 406.5 50.5
    TW18L 457
    TW20B 508 ±6.5 29
    TW21B 533.5
    TW23B 584
    TE24B 609.5
    TW25B 635
    TW27B 686
    TW28B 711
    TW30B 762

Tubeless Valves

Tubeless Valves
Valve Type, Reference Standard Valve Diameter Valve Height (L)
V2-03-9 8.8 59
43 GS 11.5 V2-03-1 TR413 11.3 42.5
43 GS 11.5 V2-03-2 TR414 11.3 48.5
43 GS 16 V2-03-3 TR415 15.7 42.5

Air-Water Valve

Air-Water Valve
Valve Parts Valve Diameter (0) Valve Height (L)
V5.01.1 ve V4.02.1 15.7 47.5

Matching Of Some Valve Parts

Valve Type Parts
V4.03.1 V4.01.1 V4.02.1
V4.03.2 V4.01.2
V4.03.01 41.65
V4.03.02 49.65

Use Of Liquid Ballast In Tractor Tires

The traction of a tire is in direct proportion to its weight. The heavier the tire is, the more traction it has.

In order to increase the traction power and to prevent wear which may occur as a result of slipping, iron cast ballasts must be installed on the front or rear side of the tractor or liquid ballast must be applied. Starmaxx and vehicle manufacturers recommend use of iron cast ballasts. In cases which iron cast ballast application is not possible, tire may be liquid filled.

Use of Liquid Ballast In Tractor Tires

Liquid ballasting must be done with a mixture of water/calcium chloride in a way to fill not more than 75% of the tire.

In case where there is no freezing hazard, only water can be used. However this decreases the effect of ballasting by %20. When antifreeze is needed, water /calcium chloride mixture can be used.

The tire must not be filled with water completely, by any means.

Liquid Filling Process:

  1. Deflate the tire.
  2. Rotate the tire in a way to position the valve at the top.
  3. Remove the valve core.
  4. Start filling the water according to the instructions in the manual of the pump.
  5. During the filling process, remove the pump regularly and let the air get out of the tire.
  6. Stop the filling process when liquid starts to flow from the valve. Mount the valve core.
  7. Inflate the tire to its normal pressure.

Important Remark: In tubeless tires, it is recommended to use an inner tube to prevent rim to rust.

Technical Documents

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